Edinburgh Castle, stronghold that was once the residence of Scottish monarchs and now serves mostly as a museum. It stands 443 feet (135 metres) above sea level and overlooks the city of Edinburgh from a volcanic crag called Castle Rock.
Castle Rock has been the site of human activity for at least 3,000 years. By 600 ce a Celtic tribe called the Votadini, or Gododdin, had built Eidyn’s Hill Fort on the rock. The first king of Scotland who is known to have made his residence on Castle Rock was Malcolm III Canmore (reigned 1058–93). His pious wife Queen Margaret, who died in the castle in 1093 and was later canonized as St. Margaret of Scotland, is commemorated in St. Margaret’s Chapel, which was built between about 1130 and 1140 on the highest point of the rock and is the oldest surviving building on the castle grounds.